Cyber risk doesn’t just involve malicious techies hacking into corporate accounts. It can also involve risk to every day business processes: “process cyber risk”. Unfortunately, because the IT Department are kept busy defending the corporate network from the hackers, these process risks are often left to themselves.
What do I mean by process cyber risk? Quite simply, a risk of loss or damage to an organisation caused by a weak business process combined with the use of computer technology. These weak processes are often found within finance departments, but you will also find them in HR, in marketing and across organisations.
Process risk and identity
Many business processes rely on a particular document being signed off by an authorised individual. As many processes migrate online, the assumption is that the sign-off process can also be undertaken online. Sign on as an individual and perhaps you have authorisation to access a particular document or process.
As most people have to log in to company systems with a password and a name, then this shouldn’t be a problem. Except that passwords get shared. Busy people often share log-in details with juniors, allowing unauthorised people to access systems and documents that they are not authorised to access.
Any authorisation process that simply relies on someone logging in with name and password is weak because it is easily subverted. Issuing “dongles” as a second factor authentication device isn’t much better as these can get shared (unless they are integral to a company identity card). Robust processes where sensitive data or decisions are concerned should assume that a password has been shared (or stolen) and require additional security such as a second pair of eyes.
Process risks and finance departments
One big risk for finance departments is invoice fraud. This can happen in several ways. A common way is for thieves to gather information about a company, perhaps the news that it is investing in new technology. They will then use this information plus other easily obtainable assets such as company logos and the names of senior people in an organisation to put together a scam.
This might involve an email “from” a director of the organisation to a mid ranking person in the finance department asking for an invoice to be paid promptly; the invoice, which is of course a fake, is attached to the email.
In other cases the invoice is genuine. For instance thieves may pose as a supplier and ask for details of any unpaid invoices. They then resubmit a genuine invoice – but with the bank payment details changed.
All too often the unwitting finance executive passes the invoice for payment. Once the money has reached the thief’s bank account it is quickly transferred to another account making it unrecoverable.
This type of fraud is big business. Earlier this year Ubiquiti Networks disclosed that thieves stole $46.7 million in this way. While in the UK, the police’s Action Fraud service received reports of around 750 in the first half of 2015. And of course many similar frauds go unreported – or undetected.
What can you do to protect against this? Well start by educating staff about the nature of the threat – all staff not just in the finance department. Ensure that the details of all invoices are scrutinised carefully: Is the logo up-to-date? Is the email address correct (perhaps it is a .org instead of a .com)? Are the bank payment details the same as usual (if they have changed then telephone someone you know at the supplier to ask for confirmation)? And take extra care with larger invoices, for instance requiring them to be check by two separate people.
There are other cyber risks within finance processes – and often these are internal risks, initiated by employees. Examples include purchase fraud when personal items are bought using company money or when required items are bought at inflated prices, with the purchaser then getting a kick back at a later date. Again fake emails can be used to support these purchases. And again simple processes can disarm the threat.
Process risks within HR
Within HR there are numerous process risks. Let’s start with recruitment. The risks here can involve social media profiles designed to misinform, perhaps with fake endorsements or untrue job details. Looking at a LinkedIn profile is an easy way to identify potential candidates – but it is important to realise that the profile you see may well be substantially embroidered.
Another short cut, especially when looking for “knowledge leaders”, is to see what sort of “rating” candidates have on sites like Klout.com. Superficially this is fine. However, it is essential to be aware of how people are rated by the site (for instance what data is used) before making a judgement using this type of data as you may well be given an untrue perspective.
Another risk of using social media to identify candidates is that you open yourself to accusations of discrimination. An attractive cv may not have information on social media about age, ethnicity or sexual preference. Social media will. You really don’t want to know this sort of information but once you know something you can’t “unknown it”: and this can open you up to accusations of bias. It isn’t unknown for companies to commission an edited summary of a candidate’s social media profiles with anything that could lead to accusations of discrimination taken out in order to de-risk the profile before it is given to the recruiter.
In fact HR is full of cyber risk, especially where social media is concerned. There may be problems with the posts employees make on social media. There may be issues around bullying or discrimination at work. And maintaining a positive “employer brand” can be very difficult if an ex-employee starts to deride their old employer on line in sites such as Glassdoor.
Process risk and marketing
Process risk is also very at home in marketing. Again social media is one of the culprits. Not everyone, even in marketing, is a social media addict. Senior marketers frequently hand over their brands’ social media profiles to junior marketers, or even interns, because “they have a Facebook page”.
It’s a mistake. Not only is it likely that the output will be poor, the junior marketer may well (they frequently do) break advertising regulations (for instance by glamorising alcohol, or even fair trading laws (e.g. by including “spontaneous” endorsements from paid celebrities).
This shouldn’t be difficult: there is no reason that the processes that govern advertising in general can’t be applied to social media.
Procurement and cyber risk
Finally there is procurement – and the process of ensuring that third party suppliers don’t represent a cyber risk. This is a huge area of risk and one that is not always well appreciated.
The issue is not just that the third party may be insecure (for instance the massive hack to US retailer Target came about via an insecure supplier) and it is hard to know whether they are secure or not. It is also that people working for a supplier who have been given access may then leave the supplier without you being told: and as a result they retain access to your information, perhaps after they have joined a competitor. In additions suppliers may well have their own reasons for being a risk – they are in dispute with you, they are in financial difficulty, they have been taken over by a competitor…
Business processes frequently have the potential to be undermined by online technologies. It takes imagination to identify where the threats lie. However once they have been identified, actions to reduce the effect of the threat are often very simple.